65, No. 2
The steam boilers which had been used in the silk reeling industry since the late 1870s were cheap to buy, but too weak for use with coal. Coal, therefore, did not become important until around the turn of the twentieth century, when steam boilers had become stronger and the gap in the relative prices of coal and firewood had been reduced.
In 760, the government minted new coins and gave them a value ten times greater than that of the preceding coins. This caused inflation, and by 772 both types of coin had an equal currency value in the market. In 772, use of the older coins was prohibited by the law. But even after this prohibition was issued, the older coins continued to be circulated, and in 779, the government approved the circulation of both types. The equalization of currency value, and the continued circulation of the older coins despite the attempt to prohibit them, show the limited extent of the Nara governmentęs ability to control the money supply.
Approximately one hundred twelfth-century charters transcribed in the Abbeyęs late medieval cartularies were analyzed. The results indicated that the Orval Abbey estates were formed from lands and usufructs donated by regional potentates of varying social rank. Later, however, the estates were expanded through both the addition of various rights over land, and reclamation carried out by the monks themselves.
The abbey developed in a region where the relationships between lay and eccle-siastical landlords were already complex. The compromises recorded in its charters indicate the mutual-aid relationships that recent scholarship has shown between Cistercian monasteries and other regional social groups. This paper therefore suggests a position halfway between Fossier and Despy.
The Nakamura family performed services for the daimyo such as removing excrement, which they purchased and used as manure, and furnishing feed for horses. Jin'emon showed great tenacity in negotiating a reduction in the price which they paid to remove the manure. Moreover, he resisted attempts by the daimyo to reduce the price of horse fodder.
His spirit of independence increased further when foreign ships appeared in Japan at the end of the Tokugawa period and caused an enormous increase in the demand for all sorts of products. This helps to prove that he was actively negotiating with the daimyo to obtain more favourable conditions rather than being passively under daimyo control. It also provides evidence that Edo was dependent on its surrounding areas.