65, No. 3
The image of the regions of litigiousness: on legal culture and demographic
movement of the eleventh through thirteenth century Chiang-hsih societies
From the eleventh to
the thirteenth century Chiang-hsih, including the eastern part of Hunan,
was famous both for its unique legal education, and for its litigiousness.
MIYAZAKI Ichisada has attributed this to cultural influences, while
OSAWA Masaaki points to the desire for money stimulated by movement
of wealth. But this article demonstrates that there are many materials
which show the importance of demographic movements.
Analysis of appropriate
censuses shows that Chiang-hsih, Fukien, and Hunan exhibit the fastest
population growth and that within Chiang-tong, Chian-hsih and Hunan,
Jao, Chin, Yen are included in the areas of most rapid growth. These
places are also famous for litigiousness. And in these places, there
was an exceptional legalism, not rule by law, but something exceptional
in traditional China, that embarrassed magistrates. Rapid population
expansion and immigration into limited space caused rocketing land prices.
People became willing to spend more money to obtain a piece of land,
which was conceived by the mandarins as litigiousness. The collapse
of the moral economy as a result of immigration may have increased the
cost of land transactions, and encouraged people to seek solutions through
Local government and the managers of smaller enterprises in the 1920s
The governing of urban economic activities in Japan started after World
War I. It was the first time that a municipal government in Japan had
adopted policies to support urban industries. However, since the main
focus of the City of Tokyo in the 1920s was the protection of consumers,
it is not really possible to talk of an actual industrial policy. It
was not until the end of the 1920s, when steps were taken to relieve
smaller retailers and manufacturers hit by the long recession, that
an industrial policy worthy of the name began. After that, the need
for an industrial policy was clearly recognized by the city authorities
and new systems such as semi-official credit co-operatives, credit guarantee
associations, and management consulting offices were established in
However, since the most
important problem for national government during this period was rural
poverty, urban relief policies had low priority, and the initiatives
of municipal governments did not receive adequate support. With the
introduction of a control economy in the late 1930s, smaller managers
had to give up their businesses and turn to war production, so there
was little justification for policies to support them.
The rise and development of •three-wheel vehicleę manufacturing in inter-war
Three-wheel vehicles, primarily used for transporting small goods, constituted
the largest sector in the inter-war Japanese automobile industry. This
article will examine the manufacturing of such vehicles from 1920 until
1937 through analysis of the factors of demand, technology and supply.
Since three-wheel vehicles
cost only one-third of Ford's popular trucks, they could replace the
traditional forms of transportation normally used by small businesses.
Other factors which led to an expanding market in the 1930s were the
fact that no driveręs licence was needed, the relatively low vehicle
tax rate, and the narrowness of Japanese roads.
Technical assistance from
the bicycle industry for the frame, and from the agricultural and fishing
industries for the engine, made it possible to produce the three-wheel
vehicle in Japan. The engine and other principal parts were imported
in the 1920s, but Japanese products were able to compete with imports
from the 1930s.
In the initial phase, the
production and distribution of three-wheel vehicles were primarily controlled
by bicycle parts manufacturers and motorcycle importers. In the 1930s,
however, control shifted to relatively big concerns, such as Hatsudokiseizo
(Daihatsu) and Toyokogyo (Mazda).
The monetary policy of the Bank deutscher L˙nder (Bank of German States)
during Germany's postwar reconstruction (1948-1952)
A remarkable change occurred in the overall attitude of the Zentral-bankrat
(Central Bank Council) during the period of postwar reconstruction,
following the outbreak of the Korean War at the end of June 1950.
The explosive expansion of the domestic market led to a heavy balance
of payments deficit. In September of the same year, it was predicted
that the German credit quota in the European Payments Union (EPU)
would soon be exhausted. The EPU's Managing Board discussed the German
deficits, and decided to send two experts to West Germany. The experts
agreed to recommend special EPU credit and proposed a programme of
credit restrictions together with continued trade liberalization.
This recommendation was decisive for the Bank deutscher L˙nder, the
predecessor of the Bundesbank. The Zentralbankrat decided with a small
majority to raise the discount rate from 4 to 6 per cent.
The German balance of
payments position improved dramatically in the spring of 1951. The
restrictive monetary policy kept domestic demand at a low level and
created pressure to export. This strategy was successfully practiced
throughout the 1950s.