66, No. 1
Japanese receivers were basically imitations of foreign products, because several big companies were technically tied up with foreign companies and small companies often imitated foreign products and sometimes even faked them. Because the consumer could not estimate exactly the contents of the radio products and preferred cheaper goods, the market was flooded with cheap but inferior goods. As a result, the influential companies, whose products were superior but more expensive, were driven out of the market. The early radio industry was then exclusively composed of small companies, which was peculiar to Japan. It means that the market of the early Japanese radio industry did not function properly.
At the end of the nineteenth century it was the adjacent suburban communities which desired annexation with Frankfurt rather than the other way around, since they hoped to take advantage of FrankfurtÍs superior administrative services. After the turn of the century, however, annexation of smaller communities became an important prerequisite of urban planning and the attitude of Frankfurt grew more positive. This was because it needed land for public facilities, and wanted to regulate both industrial and residential development.
After World War I the state (Prussia) took the leadership in the process of annexation. While the Prussian government supported the expansion of Frankfurt, it also wished to create a balance between the financial power of the city and that of surrounding areas (Landkreis). For this reason, the state established a new district (Main-Taunus-Kreis). However, the influence of Frankfurt reached beyond the borders of Prussia, and the city planned to construct economic regions (Rhein-Main-Gebiet) in cooperation with neighboring cities which belonged to other states.
The problem of overpopulation in Osnabruck villages grew in the late eighteenth century, and the economic position of the Heuerlinge (landless tenants) deteriorated. The government of the region (Hochstift Osnabruck) thought that the Hofbesitzer (peasant farmers) should restrict the number of Heuerlinge who could reside in the Hofe (peasant farms). The Poor Laws of 1766 and, most notably, 1774 therefore obliged village communities to support, or banish, poor Heuerlinge.
In response, the Hofbesitzer as a body began to organise strict settlement control over the Heuerlinge, through both local administrative mechanisms and autonomous peasant movements. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, groups of Hofbesitzer were controlling and monitoring the influx of members of the lower classes into rural areas. This is probably how the rural social order began to evolve into its modern form.
To understand the background factors that led to this failure, we need to examine the operation of the indigenous trading system which was centered on wholesale grain markets, known as ganjs. The ganjs played an important role in linking producing areas and town markets. The traders in ganjs held stores of grain in their granaries, and by using their knowledge, trade experience, information and trading networks, they controlled both prices, and supply and demand. In other words, although the expansion of Company rule brought major changes to the overall economy, indigenous trading systems adapted to the new situation and continued to play a significant economic role.