Socio-Economic History

Vol. 66, No. 5

Nobuyuki FUJII
The regional distribution of public investment in Japan during the 1960s

Generally speaking, the growth in cities which proceeds alomgside economic development is said to result from the 'urbanization economy'. To concentrate industry in urban areas is therefore seen as an effective means of accelerating economic growth. However, since this strategy usually tends to widen any gap in regional development, many governments have been obliged to introduce regional development programs in order to narrow such gaps. By contrast, Japanese governments of the 1960s pursued a regional policy which gave priority to the acceleration of economic growth. They concentrated public investment on the further development of existing coastal industrial areas in order to construct a belt of industrial zones connecting metropolitan areas.

The first aim of this paper is to consider the reasons behind this policy. During the 1960s, the Japanese governments promoted policies designed to sustain the high economic growth which had started in the 1950s for two reasons: because public opinion was largely in favor of such moves, and because domestic indutry had to be strengthened as a prerequisite for carrying out international promises to liberalize trade. The second aim is to show how the policy of improving and expanding the industrial infrastructure in coastal industrial areas did in fact contribute to sustaining high economic growth during the 1960s.

Franco-German financial entente and the Ottoman public debt service system in the late nineteenth century

The purpose of this article is to make clear the hitherto overlooked relationship between British financial control and German railway investment in the Ottoman Empire. For this purpose, it is necessary to understand the position of French capital, which mediated between these two interests through the activities of the Banque Impèriale Ottoman.

In the late nineteenth century Deutsche Bank and Banque Impèriale Ottoman led foreign investment in the Ottoman Empire. In the 1890s they began to cooperate so as to avoid the damage which might result from rivalry. Eventually, the former achieved superiority in railway investment, while the latter became ascendant in public loans, an equilibrium which is known as the Franco-German Entente over Turkish finance.

Most of these investments were guaranteed by the Ottoman Public Debt Administration, which had been established in1881, primarily to protect British creditors. This alliance between new investment and an existing organization was the result of the important position which Franco-German interests had begun to occupy in the Public Debt Administration.

It was indeed German capital that led railway investment in Turkey. However, this enterprise was highly dependent both upon cooperation with French capital and, through this relationship, upon financial guarantees from the Public Debt Administration.

Kazuhiro IWAMA
The abduction and rescue of women in Republican Shanghai, 1911-37: on the public character of modern charity

This article throws light on abduction in Republican China, using the letters and reports of the Anti-Kidnapping Society (AKS) founded in Shanghai in 1912 as its main source. According to the investigations of the AKS, about one fifth of the victims of abductions had been deceived and sold by their acquaintances, such as family members, relatives, neighbors, and fellow workers. However, abduction was the result of the arbitrary exchange of female and child labor rather than a product of the fixed status system of the traditional family and society.

The paper also reconsiders the public character, or gong of charity, and explores how the AKS selected the beneficiaries of relief actions. For example, it rejected 'bad' women who swindled philanthropists by pretending to be victims, while tolerating the sale of children by family superiors. Moreover, it investigated women who had been involved in affairs or had run off with a man. In other words, this kind of charity was a paternalistic work with the intention of protecting decent families, or baoliang. Furthermore, the AKS never discussed clear criteria for the selection of beneficiaries, but depended on the ethical judgment of each employee.

British overseas investment in Canada in the1950s: the policy for 'rebuilding' investment in the dollar area

During World War II, Britain lost most of its Canadian assets, along with its other overseas assets. The government therefore made a successful attempt to rebuild its investments in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to show the reasons and details of this re-expansion of Canadian investment.

So far, scholars have asserted that Anglo-Canadian economic relations started to dis-engage from World War I and that this dis-engagement was completed after World War II. However, Canadian assets were so important to Britain in the inter-war period, for example coming second (following Australia) in the 1930s, that the government aimed at rebuilding them after the war. Further, the British government hoped that the rebuilding of such dollar area assets would provide a future source of hard currency earnings. In the dollar area, the government preferred Canada to the United States because of its Commonwealth ties.

The policy for promoting investment in Canada was established in 1952, when the Treasury became able to use the dollars which had been bound in security for U.S. loans. The authorities regarded chemicals, aluminum smelting, mining, and the oil industry as the main sectors in British Canadian investment, and ICI, British Aluminum, Rio Tinto and BP made heavy investments in these areas. Therefore in the1950s Anglo-Canadian economic relations still showed strong ties at least in terms of capital flow.

The essentials of colonial Karafuto agriculture: the period of collective immigration,1928-1940

The Agency of Karafuto (South-Sakhalin) thought that there was a gap between their idea of establishing a distinctively Karafuto agriculture and the viewpoint of the Karafuto peasants. The object of this paper is to clarify the actual state of Karafuto agriculture by analyzing not only the Agency but also the peasants themselves. The difference in the attitudes of the two defined the development of Karafuto agriculture.

Colonialist scholars and officials insisted that peasants should concentrate on growing their own food instead of growing cash crops. However, peasants resisted this idea because it would cause a decline in their living standards and continued to emphasize the production of cash crops even though this was contrary to the wishes of the Agency. After a boom in cash crop production, peasants began to breed cows, which was in accordance with the goals of the Agency. However, their main objective was still to obtain a cash income. The Agency of Karafuto could not resolve the difference in objectives, and therefore was unable to realize its vision of Karafuto agriculture.