66, No. 5
The first aim of this paper is to consider the reasons behind this policy. During the 1960s, the Japanese governments promoted policies designed to sustain the high economic growth which had started in the 1950s for two reasons: because public opinion was largely in favor of such moves, and because domestic indutry had to be strengthened as a prerequisite for carrying out international promises to liberalize trade. The second aim is to show how the policy of improving and expanding the industrial infrastructure in coastal industrial areas did in fact contribute to sustaining high economic growth during the 1960s.
In the late nineteenth century Deutsche Bank and Banque Impèriale Ottoman led foreign investment in the Ottoman Empire. In the 1890s they began to cooperate so as to avoid the damage which might result from rivalry. Eventually, the former achieved superiority in railway investment, while the latter became ascendant in public loans, an equilibrium which is known as the Franco-German Entente over Turkish finance.
Most of these investments were guaranteed by the Ottoman Public Debt Administration, which had been established in1881, primarily to protect British creditors. This alliance between new investment and an existing organization was the result of the important position which Franco-German interests had begun to occupy in the Public Debt Administration.
It was indeed German capital that led railway investment in Turkey. However, this enterprise was highly dependent both upon cooperation with French capital and, through this relationship, upon financial guarantees from the Public Debt Administration.
The paper also reconsiders the public character, or gong of charity, and explores how the AKS selected the beneficiaries of relief actions. For example, it rejected 'bad' women who swindled philanthropists by pretending to be victims, while tolerating the sale of children by family superiors. Moreover, it investigated women who had been involved in affairs or had run off with a man. In other words, this kind of charity was a paternalistic work with the intention of protecting decent families, or baoliang. Furthermore, the AKS never discussed clear criteria for the selection of beneficiaries, but depended on the ethical judgment of each employee.
So far, scholars have asserted that Anglo-Canadian economic relations started to dis-engage from World War I and that this dis-engagement was completed after World War II. However, Canadian assets were so important to Britain in the inter-war period, for example coming second (following Australia) in the 1930s, that the government aimed at rebuilding them after the war. Further, the British government hoped that the rebuilding of such dollar area assets would provide a future source of hard currency earnings. In the dollar area, the government preferred Canada to the United States because of its Commonwealth ties.
The policy for promoting investment in Canada was established in 1952, when the Treasury became able to use the dollars which had been bound in security for U.S. loans. The authorities regarded chemicals, aluminum smelting, mining, and the oil industry as the main sectors in British Canadian investment, and ICI, British Aluminum, Rio Tinto and BP made heavy investments in these areas. Therefore in the1950s Anglo-Canadian economic relations still showed strong ties at least in terms of capital flow.
Colonialist scholars and officials insisted that peasants should concentrate on growing their own food instead of growing cash crops. However, peasants resisted this idea because it would cause a decline in their living standards and continued to emphasize the production of cash crops even though this was contrary to the wishes of the Agency. After a boom in cash crop production, peasants began to breed cows, which was in accordance with the goals of the Agency. However, their main objective was still to obtain a cash income. The Agency of Karafuto could not resolve the difference in objectives, and therefore was unable to realize its vision of Karafuto agriculture.