66, No. 6
The formation of large silk-reeling factories and the United States
market: a case study of the growth of Okaya Silk Reeling Co. and the
establishment of its brand
In addition to technological progress, confidence in raw silk brands
was a necessary condition for the development of the silk-reeling industry
in Japan. Silk reeling in Suwa district, in Nagano prefecture, developed
rapidly from the mid-1880s, by increasing exports to the United States.
During the late 1890s, however, it had to undergo reorganization because
a higher level of quality, especially in uniformity, had come to be
required as a result of technological progress in the U.S. silk manufacturing
industry, particularly the speeding up of power looms. Up till then,
small factories had reeled silk separately and then had re-reeled and
baled cooperatively. However, in order to produce uniform raw silk,
pioneering firms introduced continuous production systems from reeling
to re-reeling and packing, in far larger factories. Furthermore, they
established their own brands by labeling original chops as a commitment
to maintain quality. This was possible since the commitment was self-enforcing,
given that their production systems were efficient in producing high
quality raw silk, and that American buyers paid sufficient quality premiums
when the guarantee of quality was reliable. By fulfilling these conditions
of technology and information, the pioneering firms were able to return
to the top of the world silk-reeling industry in the 1900s.
Migration patterns in silk textile production centers in the late Tokugawa
period: a case study of the town of Hachioji
The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between
the development of market locations and population accumulation in a
rural industrial society by examining migration patterns in the late
Tokugawa period. From the 1820s, the development of the silk industry
in Hachioji generated migration by peasants from nearby villages and
by workers from areas where the textile industry was already developed.
In the late 1830s, the silk industry became divided into sericulture,
reeling and textile production. As a result, fabric dealers migrated
short distances from nearby villages, while peasants began to migrate
longer distances to be employed on daily contracts. This shows a decline
in the effect of distance as a factor in the intention to migrate.
Out-migration occurred as
Hachioji tenants moved to the Edo labor market in the 1840s. After the
1850s, the decline of Hachioji's function as a post town (shukuba) caused
many servants employed in inns to migrate out to other post towns.
This study clarifies that
the development of the silk textile industry caused a shift in the spatial
system of Hachioji from a post town to a market town (ichiba). Silk
fabric production centers were the only areas where the industrial development
of rural towns occurred before the opening of the ports.
The establishment of the actualization of inheritoręs shares in mid-nineteenth
century France: an analysis of the depositions made in the 1866 Agricultural
This paper analyzes the depositions made in the 1866 Agricultural Questionnaire
concerning law amendments about the actualization of inheritors
shares. In those days, excessive division of land was a problem and
the law of inheritance was seen as the major cause. The Court of Cassation
of France used to give decisions to divide land in kind, but such a
trend gave rise to complaints in many regional areas. Even in the 1866
Agricultural Questionnaire depositions, farmers opinions concerning
this problem can be found. These depositions can be grouped into six
types, two of which are more important than the others. The first type
requested the actualization of each childs share while keeping
equality between the children. The second type requested the freedom
to make wills (especially the expansion of the willed portion).
The farmers in the Paris
Basin demanded the amendment of the Civil Code so that requests of the
first type would be possible. In central and southwestern France, demands
for both types were seen, but the first type was becoming predominant.
Eventually, the central government decided to adopt the first type.
The farmers demands were realized at least to a certain extent.
This outcome was based on the inheritance strategies of French farmers
that are investigated in this paper.
The challenge of 'Historical Institutional Analysis': Is cliometrics
Analysis' has recently gained prominence in Japan. This note examines
the criticisms of traditional cliometrics made by Tetsuji OKAZAKI, its
major proponent, and evaluates his contributions. Most of his criticisms
are found to be misplaced since cliometrics is not excessively technical
and is not uninterested in income-distribution, institutional problems,
and economic development. He made a valuable contribution in discovering
in kabunakama (guilds) a system which maintained commercial order. However,
this order was monopolistic, and therefore unlikely to play a positive
role in modernization. Most of his other contributions are in the tradition
of neoclassical economics in the broad sense of the phrase, so that
cliometrics is not seriously threatened.