68, No. 2
The local circulation of Bank of Chosen notes in Manchuria, 1910-1920
Bank of Chosen notes issued by the central bank of colonial Korea began
to circulate in Manchuria from the late 1910s. This article clarifies
the role of these notes in the local economy of Manchuria in this period
through a case study of Kanto (present Yanbian) district, which is on
the borders of Korea and Russia.
Bank of Chosen notes started
to flow into this district from 1916, as a result of the increasing
export of farm products to the United States and Europe. However they
could not destroy the value of Jilin Guantie, the local currency of
north-eastern Manchuria. Jilin Guantie were used for dealings in agricultural
products in rural areas, while Bank of Chosen notes were used mainly
in market towns. The circulation pattern of the latter was ruled by
the fluctuation in supply and demand for the former.
This case shows that Bank
of Chosen notes did not destroy the existing multi-layered currency
system of Manchuria, but rather came to be one component of the system.
It can be said that the expansion of their circulation was supported
not only by Japanese policies, but also by the existing currency system.
The salt trade in Bengal under the monopoly of the English East India
The purpose of this paper is to explore the resilience of indigenous
mercantile activities under colonial control through a case study of
the salt trade in Bengal. When the English East India Company introduced
the sale of salt by public auction in 1788 to increase its revenue by
raising the price, new indigenous salt traders emerged. They can be
classified into two main groups: wealthy trader-cum-bankers from Calcutta
who speculated in salt, and local traders who distributed salt to the
These two groups met with contrasting fates in the 1820s and early 1830s,
as the Company could no longer maintain high prices owing to structural
deficiencies within the monopoly system. The trader-cum-bankers, having
little access to the internal market, were easily affected by the state
of the monopoly. In contrast, local traders were able to use the situation
to dominate the market. Through the trading system centred on ganjs
[wholesale markets], they were able to gain control of salt prices.
It is likely that access to the indigenous trading system determined
traders' ability to participate in the internal trade in Bengal.
The 'Greet' Boat Race: the making of a 'local society' in nineteenth
The purpose of this paper is to show how sport can be related to the
context of 'local society', a concept which I will argue was invented
in the north of England in the nineteenth century. In the industrializing
Tyneside of the mid-nineteenth century, rowing was the most popular
sport. Professional oarsmen of lower class origin raced against each
other for big prizes. Not only did huge working class crowds eagerly
gather on the banks of the Tyne to watch and enjoy the races, but local
manufacturers and merchants often led campaigns in support of the sport;
among them were such locally eminent figures as MPs and wealthy industrialists.
Local newspapers, biographies and popular songs explicitly show that
the boat race embedded itself as part of the local characteristics of
Tynesiders. For example, local oarsmen were depicted as representing
the industriousness, perseverance, innovativeness, resourcefulness for
practical science and skills, and the industrial superiority of the
'north' over the 'south'. Thus, the sport which represented such local
characteristics helped Tynesiders to view themseleves as a coherent
and successful industrial society, into which their community was then
being dramatically transformed.
The political stance of a provincial city during the French Revolution
and its regional background: Rouen and the problem of its grain supply
Rouen, the capital of Normandy,
showed a firm and unchanging loyalty despite the fluctuating nature
of the French Revolution and of its government in particular. The political
leaders of Rouen found it necessary to observe the actions of the government
and react to them with prudence. Claude MAZAURIC, one of the most famous
specialists on the French Revolution, explains this loyalty by pointing
to 'the national viewpoint' of the local leaders, and 'the union of
the state' that they considered it vital to sustain. But why was it
vital for them to sustain 'the union of the state'? This can only be
understood through an examination of the regional background of Rouen.
In this article, the author therefore investigates the problem of the
supply of grain to the city. Rouen depended on government help for its
supply of grain, especially in 1793 and 1794. This economic situation
and dependence on the government had a great influence on the political
stance and the choices open to Rouen, and was the reason behind its
loyalty to the government.