Fujian rural society of the 1930s and 1940s under the
rule of the Chinese Nationalist government
This article examines how the Chinese Nationalist government ruled
Fujian rural society in the 1930s and 1940s by focusing on such issues
as family registration, reform of land administration, and agricultural
cooperative services. In 1934, the Chinese Nationalist government took
control of Long-yan county in west Fujian, which had long been a stronghold
of the Chinese Communist Party. Subsequently, in order to exercise
control over its rural population, the new regime carried out a series
of extensive reforms. Initially, it introduced a family registration
system for conscription purposes. This was then followed by reform
of the land administration, which was expected to increase land tax.
Finally, an agricultural cooperative was founded and spread throughout
the area. As these three reforms were interrelated, by examining their
implementation we can understand the extent of the Chinese Nationalist
government’s control over the Fujian rural population. Moreover, given
that lineage ties had been traditionally very strong in this area,
this article also inspects how these reforms were in turn affected
by the social structure of Fujian rural society.
The institution of the raw-silk trade at the Yokohama foreign
settlement in the early Meiji era: the economic meaning of the 'Rengou-Kiito-Niazukarisho'
Starting with the assumption that institutions play an important role
in economic development, this paper aims to analyze the institutional
structures in the Yokohama foreign settlement. The true economic meaning
of the 'Rengou-Kiito-Niazukarisho' incident, an important topic in
economic history, is clarified through this analysis. As exports increased,
the quality of raw silk exports from Japan declined. The cause of this
was unfair and dishonest transactions. To deal with the problem, foreign
mercantile houses established a 'private chop' and an inspection system
known as 'haiken'.
However, the foreign mercantile
houses often carried out their inspection in an arbitrary manner.
As a judiciary system had not yet been established, the Japanese
raw silk merchants dealt with the situation by forming a trade organization.
In addition, 'Kiito-aratamekaisha' and 'Rengou-kiito-Niazukarisho' were established
aiming to replace foreign mercantile houses as the primary institutions controlling
the inspection and selection of raw silk. The 'Rengou-Kiito-Niazukarisho' incident
was essentially a dispute over the premiums earned from the inspection and
selection of raw silk.
Regulation or free trade: a discussion of the grain distribution
system of the Polish Ministry of Distribution in the years
This paper concerns policies of the Polish Ministry of Distribution
(Ministerstwo Aprowizacji), which controlled the requisition and distribution
of the food from 1918 until even after the Polish-Soviet War, which
ended with a ceasefire in October 1920.
The compulsory requisition
system appeared inefficient as early as World War I as a result of
the peasants' lack of cooperation with German authorities and the
black market trade. Leonard ZABOROWSKI recognized this inefficiency
in July 1918 and wrote an article proposing a contingent system as
an intermediate way by introducing some elements of free trade into
the prevailing compulsory requisition regime.
During the first years
of the Second Republic, ZABOROWSKI's idea was put into practice as
the remedy for the food crisis. However, conflation of the German-style
compulsory system with only a limited free market mechanism caused
Under these circumstances,
the ministry was forced to choose between introducing either free
trade or a more restricted regulation of trade. The ministry attempted
to cope with the crisis by importing grain from the United States
and Romania to supply cheaper bread. To finance these imports of
grain, the government flooded the capital market with paper currency.
However, a drastic devaluation of the marka left Poland no choice
but to implement free trade.
New housing estate and income disparity between different
socio-economic groups in 1920s Germany: a case study of the family
model of tenants in the Weegerhof housing estate, Solingen
In 1920s Germany, the earnings gap between the working class and
Mittelstand (middle class) decreased. Existing studies show that
despite their increase in income, workers were still not able to
afford to rent an apartment in new housing estates. However, this
article makes clear that some workers, although still being a minority,
began to rent new apartments in the 1920s. Through a case study of
a new housing estate, Weegerhof, Solingen, this article identifies
and clarifies the factors that made it possible for workers to rent
The most important factor
is seen as the family income as a whole. For example, in workers'
families, not only the main income from the father is relevant but
also the incomes of his working sons who still lived at home and
helped pay the rent. The majority of the tenants though were tradesmen
families or couples, characterised as being middle class and usually
living as a typical nuclear family. Finally, it is shown that as
the gap in total family income narrowed between workers and tradesmen,
the gap in housing expenditure also became smaller between these
two groups compared to the situation before World War I.