Nak Nyeon KIM, Economic growth of Korea: a historical and comparative perspective
This paper presents a statistical overview of the Korean economy during the last 100 years. The PPP based GDP per capita of Korea grew as fast as those of Taiwan, Japan, and U.S. during the colonial period. The gap between Korea and other counties widened until the mid-1960s and rapidly narrowed afterwards. The protection of property rights was enhanced under Japanese rule, deteriorated during the chaotic periods of division of territory and the Korean War, and was restored so as to become stronger after the 1970s. The degree of openness showed a similar trend. The accumulation of human and physical capital, which was low during the colonial period, accelerated after liberation. The high growth of saving and investment was significantly attributable to the demographic bonus, which was similar to the pattern of Taiwan and Japan. The long term trend of income inequality shows a U-shaped pattern, high during the colonial period, low during the high growth period, and high after the mid-1990s. The long term trend of institution, growth, and distribution by period reflects the characteristics of each period.
Takeshi MATSUMURA, Social relations of Russian soldiers on the eve of the Decembrist uprising: a case study of the Russian Second Army
This study analyzes the social relations of Russian soldiers on the eve of the Decembrist uprising, which occurred on December 25, 1825. Previous studies have shown that Russian soldiers supplemented their poor salary with part-time employment and food contributions from inhabitants of the area where they were stationed.
This paper shows that Russian Army Headquarters encouraged army commanders to find employment for soldiers and forced inhabitants to contribute food for soldiers “voluntarily”. The most important employers of soldiers were the government and the army. Otherwise, commanders aided soldiers in negotiating employment contracts. In this manner, a form of patriarchal relations emerged in the army. Headquarters was vigilant against accidents and illness of soldiers, defending their lives, bodies, and properties and punishing commanders violating soldiers’ rights. Commanders and soldiers enjoyed a strong camaraderie and defended each other in case of quarrels with other troops or civilians. The local population hated the troops, since their stationing was a big burden.
The Russian army was, to some extent, independent from the government and nation, and this character of the army was an important factor in the Praetorian type of coup d'état known as the Decembrist uprising.
Masahiro NAKATANI, The internal and external migration of Russian Jews in the latter half of the 19th century and the 1881 pogroms
This study examines the migration of Russian Jewish emigrants to the United States at the end of the 19th century, from the Russian viewpoint. The study analyzes previous research on Russian Jewish emigration from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century and examines the movement of Russian Jews from the four regions of the Pale of Settlement: north-western Russia (now Lithuania and Belarus), right-bank Ukraine, left-bank Ukraine, and southern (new) Russia (except Poland), showing the relationship between internal and external migration. The paper also analyzes the influence of the 1881 pogroms on Jewish emigration, an issue that in recent years migration researchers have tended to discount as a cause of emigration.
This study found that after 1881 many Jewish emigrants in north-western Russia, where public order deteriorated in 1881 but where there were no pogroms, changed their preferred destination from southern (new) Russia, where many pogroms occurred, to the United States. This change suggests that the 1881 pogroms had a major influence on the sharp increase in Russian Jewish emigration at the end of the 19th century.
Yukio WAKABAYASHI, Determining the allowances of employees of Mitsui & Co., from the 1920s to the 1930s
It is commonly thought that under the general Japanese salary system periodic increases in salary were based on an evaluation of the performance of the individual employee, and that the bonus was based on job performance. However, efforts to research how one of the major corporations, Mitsui & Co., determined the allowances paid to employees during the pre-war period have been frustrated by a lack of sources. This paper, using documents held by the Australian National Archives, is able for the first time to provide an answer to many questions about the calculation of allowances. The salary system was based on a seniority-wage system with annual increases in the basic salary; bonuses were paid twice a year. While it is commonly believed that managers decisions on both salary and bonuses were based on a performance rating of each employee, the evidence from records indicates otherwise. Since the periodical increase in pay functioned as an incentive for long-term continuous service, individual performance assessments were generally excellent. The branch managers decided on individual salaries by incorporating the job performance evaluation into the assessment. The converse held for the bonus assessments; many elements of the action evaluation were incorporated into the bonus assessment.